S6 Tuning


The S6 – the greatest street sleeper supercar slayer!

The S6 was, in it’s time, the flagship Audi. Prior to it became a popular aftermarket option, the inner was trimmed with carbon fibre.

It offered fantastic performance and yet looked just like an ordinary accountant/architects car!

There was only a few engine options which varied from region to region. The 2.2 (ANN) Turbo was pretty rare with a lot of the 4.2 V8 (AEC) engines for sale. in 1999 the 2.2 Turbo was dropped and only the 4.2 V8 was offered.

This is a shame considering that the 2.2 is a great tuning base to operate on.

The lineup was further revised in 2006 with an uprated 5.2 V10 (BXA) engine derived from the Gallardo!

Improving the handling should be your first priority inside your S6 tuning project. Drop the car as much as 35mm and fit stiffer dampers, bigger drops need to have other modifications in most instances.

Our aim in S6 engine tuning must be to increase peak power and Torque at the top end.

Tuning tips and articles

Keep the car looking standard and remove the badges or better still replace them with a TDi badge for the ultimate sleeper!

The NASP engines not provide much of a return in terms of ability to cost with regards to S6 tuning so the 2.2 Turbo represents a greater base if you do not are able to do a full rebuild.

Audi S6 Tuning modifications.

Your aim when tuning needs to be a nice flat torque curve and a wide power band. When it comes to the NASP engines a set of fast road cams will be one of the best power mods you can do mechanically to your engine.

Breathing mods are usually next up. Induction kits work effectively on the 2.2 turbo engines but only (if supplied with a suitable cold air feed or air box to shield it from the high engine bay temps.

Generally when it comes to filters for the S6 engines a sports panel air filter made from cotton will suffice. A good sports exhaust is important to balance your freer flowing air filter, just adding a much better flowing air filter can do little to improve your power.

Getting a professionally flowed head with larger valves can fully release the engines power. In nearly all cases of S6 tuning, where power is increased by over 30% your clutch will start to slip and also this needs to be uprated – read our article on clutches for more information.

NASP engines usually do not achieve big power gains if you remap them, unless you have done extensive modifications already.

Together with the 2.2 turbo engines this is another story. A remapped turbo will give phenomenal power gains and make the most of the strength of the block. Ideally you should get a hybrid or uprated turbo to improve your engine power gain using the remap.

The turbo is the weak spot on the S3 and a larger, uprated or hybrid turbo will dramatically increase the power and driveability of the car.

The largest power gains for NASP engines usually involve the addition of forced induction. Although hard to find there are several supercharger kits around for that NASP S6.

Turbos are not as easy to add than supercharger. It is harder to map a turbo since the boost comes on exponentially with engine speed. It is actually easier to map a supercharger because the boost is proportional to engine speed on the linear curve. Adding forced induction will often require a lower compression ratio or water injection.

Audi S6 Wheel modifications.

Large S6 alloy wheels can decrease performance. If you get big alloy wheels you will be altering your final drive ratio. We understand some of our members have gone bigger than this without problems., although for this reason we will advise staying on a maximum wheel size of 17 inches.

The Rules About Online Shopping Safety

Online shopping is getting easier and an increasing number of people are happily spending their hard earned cash without even stepping out of their front doors. These days you can buy everything online from insurance, clothes, shoes, health products, groceries and even cars . . . actually that’s not always true, there are auction sites but you can visit a site like www.downtownnissan.com to see what a great range they have in stock and any deals they have on offer, and while there is no “buy it now” button you can then call in for a test drive before you buy.


Unfortunately the rise in popularity of online shoppers has also been noticed by a growing number of unscrupulous hackers – there seem to be new stories every day about people having their personal details hacked and losing loads of dollars. It can be a real headache but there are just a few golden rules which will help you to navigate the potential pitfalls and enjoy a little online retail therapy safely.
• Don’t shop using public Wi-Fi – every time you enter any of your personal details whilst using public Wi-Fi you are vulnerable to identity theft. Hackers can simply pluck your details from thin air with the right equipment so don’t do your online shopping from Starbucks or anywhere else for that matter.


• Keep an eye on your bank and / or credit card statements – checking them regularly will alert you of any unusual activity in your account. If you notice anything fishy contact your credit card company immediately, the quicker you report it the more likelihood there is of you getting any stolen money reimbursed.
• Frequent password changes – are important to keep your personal information private online. It can be a real pain I know but it really is one of the best lines of defence against hackers and identity theft. Don’t be tempted to use the same password for all accounts either – so in a nutshell, change your passwords every 3 – 6 months and have a unique password for each account.
• Check that the URL is HTTPS and not simply HTTP – the “S” stands for secure. HTTPS uses SSL – Secure Sockets Layer – which routinely encrypts all of the information sent so that the only person who can see the information clearly is the recipient of the info.
• Never click on a link within an email – this may seem like the oldest piece of advice ever but it’s surprising how many people still fall for it. If you want to visit the website then type the URL into your browser, that way you can be sure that you are visiting the site you want to visit and won’t be vulnerable. Phishing scams send legitimate looking emails which can send you to a bogus site where your information will be stolen.
• Use an up to date browser – as each version of a browser is updated so are the security measures for the browser. Older browsers may have security holes which provide access to hackers. If you keep your browser updated you have a much better chance of keeping your information safe from prying eyes.
• Mobile devices need extra care – smartphones are incredibly smart and can do virtually everything these days but many of them do not have the same antivirus software which is standard on the majority of desktop computers.


Online shopping can be safe if you follow these rules. Next time you are surfing the internet remember to stop by at http://www.downtownnissan.com to check out their great deals.

Making a 10 second car


10 seconds is what is needed


Many people that get into car tuning set the marked of building a 10 second car.

Drag street and cars racing movies seem to portray 10 seconds as the ultimate aim.

In fact we see people shaving a good deal off this time around but 10 seconds seems to be a reasonable strive for someone serious about car tuning but not ready to go fully professional and without very deep pockets. It is also enough to place you in a rather exclusive club of road legal cars.

So, what exactly is a 10 second car? It is a car that covers a quarter mile drag race in 10 seconds or less.

Learn what it takes to develop a 10 second car.

What does it take to create a 10 second car? There are plenty of factors at play here beyond the car itself when you find yourself on the drag strip. Driver skill plays a large part as gear changes at critical change points must be made to keep the car within the power band. So the driver skill can take around an additional or two, the car does the rest!

You will also as being a driver be fighting for traction off of the line. Instead of focus on driver skills we shall outline the essential requirements and targets you’d have to aim for to achieve this time.

Pure power is usually good, our mottos is simply too much power is almost enough and this translates well to the drag strip. The key thing is your ability to weight ratio. Lighter cars need less power to achieve the 10 second goal and heavier cars need a lot more.

stagea-engineWhat power and weight to get a 10 second car?

For the 10 second car we calculate the subsequent: –

650bhp per 1000kg is a good ballpark starting point, increase the weight of the car and you’ll require more bhp

750 bhp for 1600kg

430 bhp for 800kg

Now we start working on using a fairly sophisticated simulator we get to perform with much more variables and get an ET speed also. There are a few assumptions made and each of these could have a effect on the results into a larger or lesser degree.

To calculate your own VERY approximate 1/4 mile time enter the hp & weight

HP Weight kg (incl driver! )

1/4 mile time

Now there exists a baseline it’s time for some more complex calculations. We ran some figures through more sophisticated and complex simulation software, drank a great deal of coffee and came back a week later to read the results. We had been distracted by nice shiny cars and engines, though (It didn’t take a week to calculate! )

So, using Car weight at 1200kg and assuming its a RWD model as starting points we fed the following into our simulator.

Assumptions created in this next example calculation are:

50/50 weight distribution

245mm wide rear tyres

25 sq foot frontal area

Drag coefficient of .36

5 ground clearance

Gear ratios of 1.908, 1.525, 1.282, 1.085, .922, .786

Final drive 3.85

Max BHP at 6250 with gearchange at 6500

Max lb/ft at 5200

Redline 7500


Runs at 300ft altitude (Santa Pod in the UK) under English varying weather conditions (dry but humid – yes we understand it usually rains but we’re trying to bring in the tourists! )

In order to achieve a 10 second 1/4 mile run just for this car you will require around 750bhp and 650ft/lbs (ET 10.98 at 137mph). If the car is lighter the power figure is lower and conversely to get a heavier car the power requirements will go up. Drop the weight by 240lbs and you’ll be hitting a 10.48 second 140mph time.

Going below 10 seconds in this car need to have around 1100bhp and 1000lb/ft of power – so a good big hike.

So, weight reduction is probably the cheapest and best option with increasing the power as being a secondary consideration. clutch, Grip, handling and transmission characteristics all play a part.

With regards to tuning we might suggest an engine swap, adding forced induction, head work and lowering the compression ratio, balancing & blueprinting,cryo treating the block as well as fitting fast road cams and uprating your fueling.

Adding an aftermarket turbo to a car.


Fully charged

Supercharging an engine involved forcing more air with it through mechanical means with the addition of a turbo or supercharger.

This is a fairly complex modification and one which ensures you keep cropping up inside our forums so we’ll cover the basics of adding a turbo upgrade in this article.


The basic basis for forced induction (turbo or supercharger) is not to increase compression or the maximum pressure within an engine cylinder.

Rather the primary reason is to increase volumetric efficiency (the efficiency of the engine at drawing in air) although forced induction is the most effective method of upping compression.

In computer games we just tick a box, and within a few moments our car is fully turbocharged and running considerably faster. In the real world things are very different.

Put a turbo on an engine with an 10: 1 compression ratio and watch it go bang! There are a variety of considerations to make when adding a turbo to your NASP engine.

Things to take into consideration when adding a turbo to a non turbo car (NASP or naturally aspirated engine).

Should you be thinking of adding a turbo to your car we suggest you join our friendly forum and get some specific advice for the car model.

When a naturally aspirated engine sucks air in, it could only draw so much in before the intake valve closes and seals the cylinder.

The average N/A engine will pull in around 60% of their volume, so as a result is just 60% volumetrically efficient. turbo-intake

The greater highly tuned an engine is the more effective it will be, a normal TorqueCars member will have already spend much time and effort tuning their NASP engines and definitely will still struggle to get anything approaching 85% efficiency.

The best way to improve this is to force the air/fuel mixture into the cylinders (forced induction) thus filling them more. The average forced induction engine runs from 110% to 150% volumetric efficiency.

Some situations of the this to help provide context on the benefits of adding a turbo. A 2. NASP motor will use effectively around 1200-1300cc of its capacity and will typically produce around an optimum 200bhp (depending on 100bhp per 1000cc). A turbo’d or supercharged 2. will use much more of it’s capacity, producing more power as it is now able to burn more fuel. (This gives a turbo engine an optimum power figure far greater than 100bhp per cylinder.)

Such as a turbo charged 1.6 engine within a formula 1 application produced well over 1000bhp. We frequently see 2. litre turbo cars hitting 600bhp plus more with relative ease providing daily use whilst maintaining reliability. The secret is in having a strong components and block to function from.

The better boost you operate, the more efficient the engine, hence we now have 1.4 litre turbo engines producing as much power as large v6’s. However the main reap the benefits of increasing boost is to increase the final compression ratio and having a better bang from an increased air/fuel charge mix in your cylinders (the actual engines compression ratio stays the same but as there is more air getting into the engine it will be a little more compressed).

If you increase the volume of air/fuel inside the cylinders, then as a result you will increase the compression, which could be too much. In order to keep the final running compression the same, the original compression (without boost) needs to be dropped to compensate.

More air will enable more oxygen to be designed for burning and with the addition of additional fuel the engine will release more power. Turbo charging is the easiest method to increase the efficiency of an engine. When adding a turbo to an engine which was not originally intended for a turbo there are some major complications to take into account.


Pre-ignition or knock – this is where the fuel ignites under pressure ahead of the spark happens. If it has not reached the most notable dead centre and will have disastrous consequences for the engine, this will cause a piston to go in the opposite direction.

To avoid detonation (premature ignition) you will need to lower the compression ratio of the engine, and/or restrict the turbo to a lower boost threshold. (Low compression engines plus a turbo will even avoid some of the turbo lag problems inherent in most turbo applications.) The very best turbos to include in a non turbo NASP (Naturally aspirated) engine are small units with low boost levels. Another option you might have is to fit a water injection kit to dampen the air charge and prevent detonation.

To lower the compression you are able to go with a re-bore and fit lower compression pistons, you can include a stroker kit to change the compression ratio or for minor adjustments you could get a greater head and thicker head gasket thus increasing the cylinder size and reducing the compression ratio.

You should aim for around a 7: If you are adding a turbo, anything above 9, 1 compression ratio: 1 and you will have problems. In all cases you need to use the highest octane fuel that one could find as the higher the octane the more resistant the fuel is to engine knock. With the right fueling though we certainly have seen people running 25psi of boost on a 10: 1 compression ratio but we should bring that the aftermarket ECU and fueling mods were of the very high specification on this application.

If you can minimize the boost pressure to 5-7psi (as opposed to 25-35psi), and use the bigger octane fuels available (e.g. Shell Optimax) you should be able to operate a turbo on the standard engine with round the 9: 1 compression ratio. For facts about Octane and its effect on engine knock read our octane article.

Direct injection as pioneered on Diesel engines is finding it’s way into petrol engines and because the fuel is inject later into the intake charge it reduce the temperature of the charge helping to resist premature ignition. That is why fSi and Di turbo engines can run high compression ratios.

When adding a turbo, for maximum performance gains, you need to get the head flowed, boost the port size, fit bigger valves and go with a greater exhaust system and header as there will be a lot larger volume of air flowing through the engine.

Fitting a variable boost controller will allow you to experiment on a rolling road while attached to diagnostic equipment to discover the optimum boost pressure and timing advance.

Particular attention ought to be paid to fueling. More air requires more fuel or you risk the danger of burning too lean. You also want to avoid overfueling if the boost from your turbo drops as this can destroy the engine.

Of all aftermarket turbo applications it really is unlikely that the cars existing fuel delivery system can deliver sufficient fuel so you will need to uprate the fuel pressure with a new pump and fuel pressure regulator, the injectors will even need uprating.

The car computer will also need to take into account the brand new fueling requirements of a turbo, especially pertaining to throttle position and wastegate control and rapidly changing fuel requirements between off and on boost conditions.

We strongly recommend a great aftermarket ECU to allow you to develop a custom map for your new turbocharged engine.

Most kits contain merely the necessary parts to physically get the turbo onto the engine such as an exhaust header and the necessary intake plumbing to the air filter.

Turbos are expensive and definitely will add by far the most power for the money. You should allow about 40 hours for fitting, you really do need to know what you are actually doing and will require the ability to create a custom ECU map. Generally speaking even though it will usually be easier to source a turbocharged engine and do a engine transplant to this than put in a turbo to some NASP engine. Most manufacturers now have a turbo charged engine with their line up which could make a suitable donor to your project.

Great Ways for Every Large Family to Have Fun

Large families can be great. With many siblings comes built-in playmates and help around the house. Large families can also have special challenges, meaning that there are some special things that every large family must keep in consideration. Here are some of the things that every large family must keep have in order to make life so much easier.

night scene: tree silhouette and campfire on sea background
night scene: tree silhouette and campfire on sea background

When you have a large family, something as simple as going to the movies, amusement park or a baseball game may be simply out of the budget. This doesn’t mean that you are totally out of ideas on activities to do as a family. There are plenty of things out there that your entire family will love that won’t break the bank. For example, camping out instead of staying in a hotel on road trips will save you potentially hundreds of dollars and create all sorts of fond memories. Also, many museums have a “”pay what you can”” policy so that you can bring everyone and still afford the tickets. Finally, state and national parks often charge per car, rather than per person, meaning that you can afford to bring everyone along to see some natural wonders. Also consider trading minor league games for pro games for a big savings on seats and a fun day at the baseball park.


Essential for doing all these activities is having a car that is large enough to fit everyone. The Nissan Armada from metronissanredlands.com sits 8 people, meaning that you can have room for all the kids and maybe even a couple of friends. With features like a built-in DVD entertainment system, you can keep the kids occupied during those long road trips that you are taking. Plus with fold down seats and great towing capability, you can bring all sorts of cargo or even tow a boat or camper when you are out with the kids. Find out more about the Armada by going to http://metronissanredlands.com today.

Dashboard styling


Adding a dash of style!

Never overlook the interior of the car. You’ll spend much of your time and effort looking at the dashboard of the car.

You certainly don’t have to keep with the standard dull plastic interior, and dials that come with the vehicle.

Often people concentrate on what others see outside the car but this often diminishes into an anticlimax as well as disappointment once they start looking inside of the car.

Every one of the interior surfaces can be recovered. Leather is actually a popular option, we are seeing a lot of flocked dashboards too but many new fabrics are offered with soft finishes, even fur is offered as well when you are brave! Be wary in the taste police though, this will go horribly wrong!

(Please leave the faux fur alone simply because this look went out about 30 years ago! ) Sit carefully and down plan your interior – take a look at show cars to have some ideas and discover what is possible.

Treat your vision to a nicely finished interior. You’ll spend much time checking out the car interior.

Keep the overall theme in the car – the interior should match the outside theme. A motorsport style exterior would not go very well using a luxury interior and the converse is also true, a motorsport interior would look out of place on a luxury car.

Numerous gauge styles are available from chrome and polished housing to carbon fibre and even complete digital dashboards which look fantastic at night look the organization. Even aircraft style heads up displays projected onto the windscreen are possible.

Adding dials and gauges can in fact add function as well as form, allowing you to monitor engine oil pressure, boost, temperature and economy voltages etc…

Be sure to only add the dials you will use – less is definitely more otherwise your interior will end up appearing like the inside of any 1980’s space ship inside a B grade movie.

Complement the dashboard dials and plastic makeover with a brand new sporty controls, gear knob and pedals. Drilled aluminium pedals choose most car interiors yet all types are available and choosing pedals with a wider footprint opens up the possibility of heel and toe gear changes to the majority of car types (and foot sizes).

The typical dials normally can be replaced easily by taking out the instrument panel and overlaying a pre-printed panel. White backgrounds are popular which have the added advantage of being easily seen at night.

Strangely when the dash illumination switches on at night the numbers will glow along with the white background will go dark, at least which had been the effect in my Corolla. Companies sell complete instrument binnacles, or kits to convert the typical one. Most will require some disassembly of your dashboard to instal.

Seats come in all sizes and shapes. Beware of light colours because they can be very tough to keep clean (although they do look fantastic. It is actually beneficial to choose similar colours and materials to the other surfaces in your car so bear this in mind when planning the automobile interior. Retro looks often last considerably longer than modern quirky looks but is definitely not as revolutionary.

Changing brake pads and discs


Taking a brake from it all

This is an article is primarily based on a 2002 VW Bora, but I’ve changed discs and pads on many a car down the years and the basics are virtually the same for standard systems. Because car makes and models do vary we suggest you talk to a good workshop manual to get an overview of the specifics for your car. In case you are not reasonably competent at car mechanics please leave work to a specialist, as always.

If you’ve got a big brake four caliper system, or some high spec carbon ceramic solution, or a solution where the rotor (friction plate portion) and hub of the brake disc are separate components then you may need to acquire more information.

It covers the leading pads and discs specifically however the same principles can be applied towards the rear of the car, with the only provision being that this rear will have some form of handbrake system – this will usually be a cable and lever assembly that presses the pads on the discs or in some cases a compact, separate drum or disc system. In cases like this grab your Haynes manual and look up what to do. In the case of a cable it will simply need disconnecting.

Brake pads

Changing brake discs and pads.

The tools you are likely to need will be a wheel wrench, a socket set, the specific removal socket for your caliper floating pins (explained below), a set of pliers, a piston windback tool, some copper grease and lots of rags. A torque wrench is helpful but not absolutely necessary. The windback tool shouldn’t set you back more than around £20. In the past I have used a big long lever to push the piston back and an adjustable spanner plus a flat-bladed chisel to turn a piston back and trust me, a windback tool can perform both these jobs and make them much, much simpler.

If you have the right tools and know what you are doing, changing brake discs and pads is a relatively straightforward job.

Changing discs and pads is absolutely one of the easiest jobs you can do technically and given the price you can get new parts from over the Internet currently, can save you a good amount of money.

If it’s the initial time allow yourself at the very least an half and hour to two hours.

Exactly what is a brake system anyway?

This can be a fair question and it helps to understand the principles involved. Once you put your foot about the brake pedal the braking system magnifies that force and uses it to make a piston push brake pads against a disc. The friction with this slows you down. The fundamental idea is a simple as that.

The piston is held inside a housing which is installed on metal pins that hook it up to the “caliper carrier”. The saying “caliper” is used to describe the whole piston housing, and so in this post I use “piston” for just the piston and “caliper” for the piston housing.

The metal pins allow the caliper to float forth and back, which ensures that as being the discs and pads degrade the piston follows them, so the whole system is self-adjusting. The caliper carrier is itself bolted to the bottom of the suspension strut near the hub which the brake disc and therefore the wheel are bolted.

Usually you can replace brake pads 2 or 3 times before you need to do the discs also. Before you approach that minimum, the discs will have a minimum thickness which is tested in your MOT and as standard discs are very cheap to purchase it’s often worth replacing them, however. Some cars also have disc pad wear sensors. This can be an electrical cable connected to the inner pad using one side of your car. You’ll need to disconnect this.

If your new pads don’t have them it is not going to affect your braking, but you will definately get a light on your own dashboard that you’ll must either ignore, or receive the warning removed electronically. For instance, on VAG group cars this can be removed using the vagcom utility, as well as other cars have similar systems. Ask in our forum for additional information.

General tips before you start.

It’s been said frequently but it’s worth saying again; never, ever work under the car with just a jack. Saving yourself £10 or £20 for a pair of axle stands is not worth giving yourself an accidental leg amputation.

Secondly, when you’re utilizing the wheel off, loosen the wheel nuts before you jack it up. This way you won’t rock the auto off the jack or stand while you make an effort to remove a nut that’s been place on with an air gun. In a similar manner, when putting the wheel back on, tighten the nuts hand tight after which a small turn with the wheel wrench, then lower the wheel to the floor before fully tightening. Otherwise tighten about half a turn again once the wheel is down if you have a torque wrench then use it.

Lastly, if you’ve not done this before, take some photos as you go, so you can look back to them if you’re not sure what went where.

Ok, let’s get cracking.

Ok, so let’s hop on with it. The first thing is to locate your brake fluid reservoir. This usually has a bright cap, yellow, green or red, along with the cap will have sensor wires coming out of it. If you’re not sure your handbook should be able to tell you where it is. Get rid of the cap and have a look at the level. You will need to monitor this as you may work. Right now as your discs and pads are worn the piston will be fully out, and winding it way back in will increase the level. It could be lowered through a siphon or syringe, to dip to the fluid and draw some up. Whichever way you are doing it be careful not to get brake fluid for you or the rest of the engine bay. Brake fluid is not good stuff. The cloth must be clean to avoid getting dirt into your brake fluid.

So, take the cap off, and wrap some cloths around the reservoir, to help stop any accidental drippages.

Jack the auto up then secure it on an axle stand. Get rid of the wheel and you ought to see something similar to the following:

What you are considering here is the brake disc itself, the caliper to the left, and also the wire that can help keep the caliper tucked into the outer brake pad, that you can see behind the wire. Most systems have some kind of retaining wire. You can also see the top of the caliper carrier which supports the caliper in place. The caliper moves on sliding pins which can be bolted for the carrier.

Here’s another picture from the top:

You can see the brake fluid pipe getting into the caliper, and the topmost sliding pin. There’ll be another underneath. These pins are usually removed with a T-socket or spline socket, so you will need the specific one. Google can usually let you know which one.

Taking off the pads and caliper:

So, if fitted, go ahead and disconnect the pad wear sensor cable.

When you have one, use a pair of pliers, or a screwdriver, and remove the retaining wire, again. This may be fiddly. Make sure you definitely learn how it looks for when you are putting it back on.

Now remove the sliding pins. These are typically in a housing, covered with a plastic cap to stop gunge getting in. Here you can see me removing the top one:

Some pins are screwed directly into the carrier and merely need one socket or T-bit to get rid of. Others, often on the rear brakes, screw into a bolt that itself screws in the carrier. You will need to use a spanner or wrench on the bolt to stop it rotating as you remove the pin, although in such a case the bolt does not have to be removed. When the pins are removed they should be cleaned associated with a deposits, or replaced with new ones if there is any damage to them. This makes sure the caliper slides freely when you reassemble.

Now both pins are removed the caliper needs to be pulled away from the disc and pads. This can sometimes be difficult if the pads are seized onto it. You might find some gentle persuasion with a hammer is necessary to break the seal. If you’re not changing the discs be careful not to damage all of them with the hammer while you do this. You may also get the inner pad that’s on the side that the piston is will have small metal arms that hold the pad on the inside of the piston. In this case when you slide the caliper out of the carrier the pad includes it.

When the caliper comes away support it and don’t permit it to hang on the brake fluid pipe. Make use of a cable tie or bit of string and secure it out of the way high on the suspension spring.

Take the other brake pad away and you’ll then see this, which is the empty caliper carrier:

If you’re only changing the pads you will not need to do anything else. Go straight to the reassembly section.

Removing the caliper carrier:

If you’re doing the pads and the discs then you will need to remove the carrier also. This is the two bolts you can observe at the top of the image. A little tip is to slacken the bottom bolt first but don’t fully remove it until you have removed the very best one. Using this method you’ll stop the carrier swinging up as you turn the top bolt.

Removing the disc:

Once the carrier is removed it is possible to remove the disc. The disc is kept in place mainly through the wheel nuts themselves, as well as a small screw. This screw is a complete pain. It will most likely be seized, and will either snap in half when you remove it, or you will have to make use of a hammer and screwdriver to knock it round, so ruining it anyway. Whatever happens Make sure you don’t need to worry about it. It’s pretty much superfluous, and often replacement discs have neither a new screw nor a hole to adhere it in. Remove it nevertheless, you can and also the old disc will come away. If it doesn’t it may have heat welded itself on the hub. Get a hammer and present it a few smacks to get rid of the seal.

Get a cloth and wipe the face of your hub which had been behind the disc, eliminate any old gunge that’s there. Get some fresh copper grease and put some about the hub. This will help to stop the latest disc adhering to the hub again. Supply the disc around the hub. If you do have a whole new screw use it. If not use a couple of the wheel nuts to hold the disc loosely in place, which you can see is the thing that I have done in the last picture in this article.


When you’re cleansing the caliper and carrier for reassembly pay special attention to the various components that touch the brake pads and where the brake pads sit in the carrier. If the slots are rough or dirty this can stop the pads moving freely and cause premature wear or brake seizure.

Now it’s time and energy to put the caliper carrier back on. Give it a clean with a stiff brush and cloth to remove dust and bits, before you do this. Use a little bit of copper grease in the end of your bolt, again it helps to avoid seizure and make it easier to remove it the next time. If not, don’t worry, obtain it as tight as you can, you’ll not strip these bolts, if you have a torque wrench use it.

Once that’s done you are at the point of putting the new pads on. Provide the caliper a clean with a stiff brush but try not to damage the rubber sleeve that surrounds the piston. If this is damaged it can let dirt in which can seize the piston.

Take the outer pad, the one which is not about the piston side. Use a little copper grease to coat the part of the caliper carrier that the ends of the pad touch, as well as on the back of the pad where little arms of the caliper will touch the pad. Put the pad in place. Coat the parts in the inner side of the carrier where the inner pad will touch also.

You now must wind or push the piston back. Front pistons usually only need pushing. Rears, especially if they are also hooked up towards the handbrake assembly, may need winding back. You can usually tell if a piston is actually a windback one if it features a slotted end. In either case the basic principle is identical. In the picture below you can see me utilizing a tool in such a case to push the piston back. The tool I have also has an adapter that can fit into the slots of any windback piston and turn the piston as it pushes it back.

The most important thing is to check your brake fluid level when you wind the piston in, and remove brake fluid as necessary. You also need to be mindful again as you wind back not to damage the rubber sleeve.

In the event that the piston has seized then although you can often utilize a windback tool to force the piston back I would recommend that you get the caliper changed as soon as you can as it may well seize again in the same place.

Once the piston is fully wound back remove the tool, get the remaining pad and in case it is one of the pads which secure for the piston, input it there. Otherwise place the pad onto the caliper carrier as you did the other pad.

Offer the caliper up to the carrier. You have to reasonably quick here because the piston will slowly want to come forward. Stick a small amount of copper grease on the thread of your sliding pins and placed them back. Before you fully tighten either of them, It’s best to have both in and screwed up a certain amount.

Don’t massively over-tighten these. Put any end caps there could have been back on. Pump the brake pedal a few times, then push down hard. As there’s no engine running it should feel solid rather than sink down.

If it does sink down then you’ve got air in your need and system to get it checked. This really is however a really rare occurrence and very unlikely to happen. If it all feels ok the very last thing is to put the wire back on. Best option is to secure one end first, then use a set of pliers to obtain the other end in. Once it’s directly into bed it against the carrier and caliper have a gentle tap.

You should now see such as this:

New discs have a thin protective film of oil and you will have likely got grubby fingermarks everywhere in the disc so use a cloth and wipe it off as best it is possible to.

Remove any wheel nuts you could have used to contain the disc into position if all is well. Put a little bit copper grease on the face of the disc that will be touching the within the wheel. Provide you with the wheel up, and do not rotate the disc if it’s not secure from a screw. Tighten your wheel nuts handy tight then half a turn, then lower the car down and tighten fully.

Give yourself a pat about the back then crack on with one other side. Don’t forget to set the brake fluid reservoir cap back on and clean up any brake fluid spillages.

Once both sides are carried out go for a test drive. The brake pad may feel harder initially, plus your brakes won’t feel as good. Brakes need a chance to bed in before they perform at their best so try to avoid the need to brake quickly from high-speed.

Try not to brake harshly for a few hundred miles as repeated hard braking on new discs can sometimes warp them and they’ll have to be replaced again. You may also notice a slight hot oil smell as you leave the car, this will be any residue burning off the disc. You don’t need to be concerned unless it doesn’t disappear after several drives.

That’s all there is certainly to it. Best of luck. This post was created by Guy Heaton.

Ways To Stay Safe and Make Other Drivers Happy

Did you know that you can stay safe and help to keep the drivers around you happy all at the same time? It’s true, follow these tips and it will help you to achieve both things:
• Don’t tailgate – make sure that there is a minimum of one car length between you and the car in front for every ten miles per hour you drive – it’s courteous and it ensures that you have sufficient stopping distance thereby keeping everybody safer.


• Remember your lights – your lights help you to see and be seen but they can also temporarily blind (and annoy) other drivers if you don’t use them properly. Remember to turn off high beams if other cars approach on small rural streets so that you don’t cause a blind spot and hence a potential accident.
• Help other vehicles to merge – merging is an essential part of keeping the traffic flow moving safely. Cars which are attempting to join a highway have to yield to the traffic which is already on the highway but you don’t have to make things difficult for them – move over if you’ve got the room so they can merge safely.
• Don’t hog the left lane – it is for overtaking purposes only so don’t drive along it for any extended period of time unless there is some sort of emergency. If you stay in the lane it will annoy the other drivers who want to overtake slower traffic in front of them.


• If the sign says stop you should stop – and that means stop for around 3 seconds, not one of those slow moving rolling stops which so many drivers employ. Not only is a rolling stop illegal it is also extremely annoying for other drivers and pedestrians.
• Don’t play your music too loud – you might want to hear your music but that doesn’t mean that everybody around you should have to listen to it too. Extremely loud music can be distracting for other drivers and incredibly annoying. On beautiful days when the windows are down, remember that other drivers may be enjoying a little bit of peace and quiet or some of their own tunes.
• Be a thoughtful parker – car parking spots are designed for one car so make sure that only take up one space when you park. Check that you are between the lines in a parking lot and that the cars parked on either side of you can get in and out of their vehicles. If you are parking on the road side pull up close to the car in front without blocking them in to make as much room as possible for other road users.
• Blocking the intersection – is one of the most annoying things which can really get on the nerves of numerous road users all at the same time. It is incredibly annoying if you can’t move on a green light because somebody is inconsiderate enough to block the intersection so try not to do it.


• Make sure that your vehicle is well maintained. Who likes driving behind a smelly, smoky car? The answer to that is nobody. It isn’t pleasant to drive behind a car which has clouds of black smoke emitting from the exhaust system . . . it isn’t good for the environment either. Make sure that your car is well maintained and repaired when necessary.
Follow these tips and you’ll not only help to keep the roads a safer place to be, they’ll also be that little bit happier. At www.ocfiat.com there is a good choice of new and used motors for sale. Check out the options at http://www.ocfiat.com.

5 Maintenance Tips That Can Save Your Car’s Life


Car maintenance is more important than ever since the average cost of a new car in Arizona has climbed to well over $30,000 dollars. That’s the normal price, not the price of an extraordinary car. No wonder lots of people are opting to keep their cars longer. Luckily, cars have undergone many improvements over the years, and can now be counted on to last through a lot more miles than they used to. The important thing to a extended life for your car is regular maintenance.

1. Oil Changes

According to the manufacturers’ recommendations, Mechanic Working on Auto Oil ChangeThe number one maintenance procedure needed to keep your car running well is to change the oil faithfully. Every car is different, so every car may have different oil change recommendations. Your owner’s manual is the place to start out; it is a lot of valuable information. Manuals usually give a timeline for ideal conditions and also for rough conditions. You probably seldom drive under what the manual considers ideal conditions, in order to be around the safe side you should base your schedule on the rougher conditions. What is considered rough conditions are what a lot of people in Arizona drive in just about every day, including; extremely hot temperatures, stop and go traffic, and mountainous terrain.

It is also important to change your filter with every oil change. If the filter does not do its job it can allow grime to produce its way throughout your engine, it is recommended that you use an exceptional filter since.

It is recommended that you check the amount of your oil every 1 or 2 hundred miles. Oil is to your car what blood is to your body, it can’t function without it.

2. Brakes

Brakes are the main safety feature of your car. To keep them in top shape, refer to your owner’s manual regarding when different tasks should be done. Once a year the brake fluid should be checked regularly and changed at least. Again, the stop and go driving and high temperatures in Arizona can damage brake fluid which often can cause brake failure. If they are wearing thin, the brake pads also have to be checked regularly to see. Many brake pads have a internal safety system. Even though you don’t hear anything, keep these things visually inspected as frequently as being the manufacturer suggests, although when you brake they emit an increased pitched squealing sound when they get thin enough that you need to replace them. Most brake work must be left into a professional car repair shop.

3. Transmission Fluid

In car maintenance, the transmission is often overlooked, but if it is not working properly you will not be going anywhere. Look into the owner’s manual as to how many times and what kinds of maintenance are recommended as always. You should check the transmission fluid often. Although some owner’s manuals say it isn’t needed to change the transmission fluid regularly, it can save the life of your respective transmission. Most transmission failures are caused by overheating, most often caused by worn out fluid that should have already been replaced. Needless to say, Arizona heat and mountainous terrain can contribute to the overheating seek advice from a car repair shop as to whether your transmission fluid needs to be changed.

4. Timing Belt Replacement

Auto Repair Center Working on Transmission The timing belt is vital to the functioning of your vehicle, as it synchronizes the camshaft with the crankshaft. Allowing it to go too much time can cause engine failure and expensive repairs, despite the fact that fortunately they do not need to get changed often. Once again, consult that owner’s manual, as different cars recommend differing times to modify the timing belt. It might vary any where from every 30,000 miles to every 100,000 miles. The Arizona heat is challenging on engine parts and may shorten the life span of belts. If you take your car to a reputable car mechanic shop they can often tell by looking for indications of stretching or wear when your timing belt is in need of replacement.

5. Spark Plugs

Spark plug maintenance is very important to maintain your engine running in optimum condition. The function of a spark plug is to ignite the fuel mixture inside the cylinders. Problems with spark plugs will change the way your car runs. Or is not going to idle smoothly, the spark plugs are a good place to begin seeking the problem, in case your car is actually difficult to start. A great car repair center will be able to tell a lot about your engine by removing and inspecting the spark plugs.

According to the manufacturer’s recommendation, spark plugs should be removed and checked every 30,000 miles or. This will prevent the spark plugs from seizing from the cylinder heads, which is a extremely expensive repair. To learn more contact us today!

Here’s an Explanation Why Diesel Engines Are Difficult to Start When They Are Cold


Diesel motors are a great deal harder to get started on when cold due to multiple different factors:

Battery Strain

Battery Output

Oil Density

Gas “Gelling”

Electrical Resistance

An average battery runs optimally at 80 degrees Fahrenheit. This is the temperature at which the battery holds 100% charge, but when temperatures get colder, the battery starts to slowly lose function. At Degrees as an illustration, an average car battery carries approximately 46% available power.

If operating items such as the lights, heater and radio or other electricity requiring options within your vehicle, you further lessen the batteries available power towards starting your engine. You can take it straight into a local automotive repair shop and possess it tested if you think your battery can be your problem.

Another leading kind of issues to cold-starting difficulty is your gas / oil density. Because the temperature drops, your oil and gas become thicker, and harder for your engine and fuel pump to move around. This is simply more added stress towards the starting process, and with the battery in mind, causes your engine to be nearly five times harder to start than it would be at 80 degrees Fahrenheit.

Quick and easy solutions to these issues include:

Keeping a Full Fuel Tank

Use Glow Plugs or Block Heaters

Store Vehicle in a Warmer Area

Winter Diesel Fuel Additive

You further prevent the chance of moisture entering the tank, and freezing, which can block your fuel lines and prevent starting, by keeping your gas tank full.

If you can, be sure to store your vehicle on the inside of a warmer area, for instance a heated shed, or garage. This will greatly increase your starting ability. However, if you are unable, purchase glow plugs, or possibly a block heater and set it on a timer to warm your engine a few hours prior to your expected starting time.

Lastly, utilize a winter diesel fuel additive to make your gas burn more efficiently, preventing gelling in your own engine. Take your vehicle to a local automotive mechanic, and have them cleaned or rebuilt., in case your engines pistons are already overly-gelled.

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